Temper Tantrums

Temper tantrums are often defined as out of control behavior including screaming, hitting, head-baning and falling down and other violent display of frustration, usually occurring in children of 18 months to 4 years of age. These are emotional outbursts in response to unmet needs or desires in younger children or children with communication difficulty.

External evaluation versus Self-evaluation

External evaluation is an independent evaluation undertaken by someone outside the organization. The evaluation may be commissioned by the organization itself or by an outside body, for example a current or potential funder. The terms of reference for an external evaluation are usually set by whoever commissions the work.

Self-evaluation is an internal process of self-reflection in order to assess the value of the work of the organization and to plan for future developments.

The management committee, staff and participants se the terms of reference, i.e., the purpose of the evaluation, what they want to evaluate, how it will be done, who will be involved and how the results will be used. Self-evaluation should answer the questions:

  • “How are we doing?”;
  • “Are we accomplishing what we set out to do?”; and
  • “How can we improve what we are doing”?

Self-evaluation does not necessarily mean that the organization does all the work of the evaluation itself. Often the organization contracts an outside evaluator to help plan the process of self-evaluation and/or to facilitate and write up all or part of the evaluation.

related literatures:
  1. Cf. Neal J. Roese, “The Functional Basis of Counterfactual Thinking”, in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66/1994, pp. 805-818.
  2. Cf. Norbert Schwarz/Herbert Bless, “Constructing Reality and Its Alternatives: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Social Judgment”, in: Leonard L. Martin/Abraham Tesser (eds.), The Construction of Social Judgment, Hillsdale 1992, pp. 217-245.
  3. Cf. Keith D. Markman/Igor Gavanski/Steven J. Sherman/Mathew N. McMullen, “The Mental Simulation of Better and Worse Possible Worlds”, in: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 29/1993, pp. 87-109.
  4. Cf. Lawrence J. Sanna, “Defensive Pessimism, Optimism, and Simulating Alternatives: Some Ups and Downs of Prefactual and Counterfactual Thinking”, in:Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71/1996, pp. 1020-1036.
  5. Cf. Lien B. Pham/Shelley E. Taylor, “From Thought to Action: Effects of Process-Versus Outcome-Based Mental Simulations on Performance”, in: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25/1999, pp. 250-260.
  6. Cf. Michelle R. Nario-Redmond/Nyla R. Branscombe, “It Could Have Been Better or It Might Have Been Worse: Implications for Blame Assignment in Rape Cases”, in: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 18/1996, pp. 347-366;Gary L. Wells/Igor Gavanski, “Mental Simulation of Causality”, in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56/1989, pp. 161-169.
  7. Cf. Daniel Kahneman/Dale T. Miller, “Norm Theory: Comparing Reality to Its Alternaties”, in: Psychological Review, 93/1986, pp. 136-153.
  8. Cf. Daniel Kahneman/Amos Tversky, “The Simulation Heuristic”, in: Daniel Kahneman/Paul Slovic/Amos Tversky (eds.), Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, New York 1982, pp. 201-208.