Personality Disorders (abbreviated PDs) involve longstanding, persistent and maladaptive ways of functioning that are associated with impairment in intrapersonal, social, occupational and academic functioning.
PDs are considered to have an onset in early adulthood, although most difficulties can be seen as traits from childhood.
The diagnostic heading of personality disorder embraces a wide variety of presentations.
The 10 patterns of extreme personality traits Opens in new window that have been identified as Personality Disorders (PDs) are classified on the second axis of DSM-IV. PDs are organized in three clusters.
- Cluster A includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal PDs that are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior.
- The histrionic, borderline, narcissistic, and anti-social PDs which form Cluster B are characterized by erratic, impulsive, or overdramatic behavior. Anti-social PD often involves criminal acts, as people suffering this disorder tend to disregard rules and the rights of others.
- Cluster C PDs are marked by fear and anxiety and comprise avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PDs.
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- The research data for this work have been adapted from:
- Understanding Paranoia: A Guide for Professionals, Families, and Sufferers By Martin Kantor
- Personality Disorders: Toward the DSM-V By William O'Donohue, Katherine A. Fowler, Scott O. Lilienfeld.
- The Fundamentals of Psychological Medicine By R.R. Tilleard-Cole, J. Marks
- Personality Disorders in Modern Life By Theodore Millon, Carrie M. Millon, Sarah E. Meagher, Seth D. Grossman, Rowena Ramnath